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Thursday, September 15, 2005

On 2 Corinthians 10:7-18

HOMILIES OF ST. JOHN CHRYSOSTOM ON THE SECOND EPISTLE OF ST. PAUL THE APOSTLE TO THE CORINTHIANS, HOMILY XXII

2 COR.Chapter 10:

Ver. 7. "Do ye look on things after the outward appearance? If any man trust to himself that he is Christ's, let him of himself think this again, that, as he is Christ's, even so are we Christ's."


What one may especially admire in Paul amongst other things is this, that when he has fallen upon an urgent necessity for exalting himself, he manages both to accomplish this point, and also not to appear offensive to the many on account of this egotism; a thing we may see particularly in his Epistle to the Galatians. For having there fallen upon such an argument, he provides for both these points; a matter of the very utmost difficulty and demanding much prudence; he is at once modest and says somewhat great of himself. And observe how in this place also he makes it of great account, "Ye look at the things that are before your face." Behold here also prudence. For having rebuked those that deceived them, he confined not his remarks to them, but he leaps away from them to these too; and he does so constantly. For, in truth, he scourgeth not those only that lead astray, but the deceived also. For had he let even them go without calling them to an account, they would not so easily have been reformed by what was said to the others; but would have been greatly elated even, as not being amenable to accusations. Therefore he scourgeth them also. And this is not all that is to be admired in him, but this farther, that he rebukes either party in a manner suitable to each. Hear at least what he says to these, "Ye look at the things that are before your face." The accusation is no light one; but a mark of men exceedingly easy to be deceived. Now what he says is this, 'ye test by what appear, by things carnal, by things bodily.' What is meant by 'what appear?' If one is rich, if one is puffed up, if one is surrounded by many flatterers, if one says great things of himself, if one is vain-glorious, if one makes a pretence of virtue without having virtue, for this is the meaning of, "ye look at the things that are before your face."

"If any man trust in himself that he is Christ's, let him consider this again with himself, that even as he is Christ's, even so also are we." For he does not wish to be vehement at the beginning, but he increases and draws to a head by little and little. But observe here how much harshness and covert meaning there is. He shows this by using the words "with himself." For he saith, ' Let him not wait to learn this from us; that is, by our rebuke of himself,' but "let him consider this with himself, that even as he is Christ's, so also are we;" not that he was Christ's in such manner as the other was, but, "that even as he is Christ's, so l also am I Christ's. Thus far the community holds good: for it is not surely the case that he indeed is Christ's, but I some other's. Then having laid down this equality between them, he goes on to add wherein he exceeded, saying,

Ver. 8. "For though I should boast somewhat more of our authority, which the Lord hath given us for edification, and not for your destruction, I should not be ashamed:"


For since he was going to say somewhat great, observe how he softens it. For nothing doth so offend the majority of hearers as for any one to praise himself. Wherefore to cut at the root of this offensiveness, he says, "For though I should glory somewhat abundantly." And he did not say, 'if any man trust that he is Christ's let him think that he is far short of us. For I possess much authority from Him, so as to punish and to kill whomsoever I choose;' but what? "For though I should glory even somewhat abundantly." And yet he possessed more than can be told, but nevertheless he lowers it in his way of speaking. And he said not, 'I glory,' but, "if I should glory," if I should choose to do so: at once both showing modesty, and declaring his superiority. If therefore he says, "I should glory concerning the authority which the Lord gave me." Again, he ascribes the whole to Him, and makes the gift common. "For building up, and not for casting down." Seest thou how again he allays the envy his praises might give rise to, and draws the hearer over to himself by mentioning the use for which he received it? Then why doth he say, "Casting down imaginations?" Because this is itself an especial form of building up, the removing of hindrances, and detecting the unsound, and laying the true together in the building. For this end therefore we received it, that we might build up. But if any should spar and battle with us, and be incurable, we will use that other power also, destroying and overthrowing him. Wherefore also he says, "I shall not be put to shame," that is, I shall not be proved a liar or a boaster.


Ver. 9, 10, 11. "That I may not seem as if I would terrify you by letters. For his letters, say they, are weighty and powerful; but his bodily presence is weak, and his speech contemptible.Let such an one think this, that, such as we are in word by letters when we are absent, such will we be also in deed when we are present."


What he says is this: 'I could boast indeed, but that they may not say the same things again, to wit, that I boast in my letters, and am contemptible when present, I will say nothing great.' And yet afterwards he did say something great, but not about this power by which he was formidable, but about revelations and at greater lengths about trials. ' Therefore, that I may not seem to be terrifying you, "let such an one reckon this, that what we are by letters when we are absent, such are we also in deed when we are present.'" For since they said, 'he writes great things of himself, but when he is present he is worthy of no consideration,' therefore he says these things, and those again in a moderated form. For he did not say, ' as we write great things, so when we are present we also do great things,' but in more subdued phrase. For when he addressed himself to the others indeed, he stated it with vehemency, saying, "I beseech you that I may not when present show courage with the confidence wherewith I think to be bold against some :" but when to these, he is more subdued. And therefore he says, ' what we are when present, such too when absent, that is, lowly, modest, no where boasting. And it is plain from what follows,

Ver. 12. "For we dare not make ourselves of the number, or compare ourselves with some that commend themselves: but they measuring themselves by themselves, and comparing themselves among themselves, are not wise."


Here he both shows that those false Apostles are boasters and say great things of themselves: and ridicules them as commending themselves. 'But we do no such thing: but even if we shall do any thing great, we refer all unto God, and compare ourselves with one another.' Wherefore also he added,

"But they themselves measuring themselves by themselves and comparing themselves among themselves are without understanding." Now what he says is this: ' we do not compare ourselves with them, but with one another.' For further on he says, "in nothing am I behind the very chiefest Apostles;" (Chap. xii. x 11. ) and in the former Epistle, "I labored more abundantly than they all;" (1 Cor. xv. 10.) and again, "Truly the signs of an Apostle were wrought among you in all patience." (Chap. xii. 12.) 'So that we compare ourselves with ourselves, not with those that have nothing: for such arrogance cometh of folly.' Either then he says this with reference to himself, or with reference to them, that ' we dare not compare ourselves with those who contend with one another and boast great things and do not understand:' that is, do not perceive how ridiculous they are in being thus arrogant, and in exalting themselves amongst one another.

Ver. 13. "But we will not boast of things without our measure, but according to the measure of the rule which God hath distributed to us, a measure to reach even unto you."

For it is probable that in their boasting they said, 'we have converted the world, we have reached unto the ends of the earth,' and vented many other such like big words. 'But not so we,' he says, "But according to the measure of the province which God apportioned to us as a measure, to reach even unto you." So that his humility is evident on either hand, both in that he boasted nothing more than he had wrought, and that he refers even this itself to God. For, "according to the measure of the province," saith he, "which God apportioned to us, a measure to reach even unto you." Just as if portioning out a vine to husbandmen, even so He meted out unto us. As far then as we have been counted worthy to attain to, so far we boast.


Ver. 14. For we stretch not ourselves beyond our measure, as though we reached not unto you: for we are come as far as to you also in preaching the gospel of Christ:"


Not simply 'we came,' but, 'we announced, we preached, we persuaded, we succeeded.' For it is probable that they having merely come to the disciples of the Apostles, ascribed the whole to themselves, from their bare presence among them. ' But not so we: nor can any one say that we were not able to come as far as to you, and that we stretched our boasting as far as to you in words only; for we also preached the word to you.'

Ver. 15, 16. "Not boasting of things without our measure, that is, of other men's labours; but having hope, when your faith is increased, that we shall be enlarged by you according to our rule abundantly.To preach the gospel in the regions beyond you, and not to boast in another man's line of things made ready to our hand."

He sets forth a large accusation of them on these grounds, both that they boasted of things without their measure, and of other men's labors; and that whilst the whole of the toil was the Apostles', they plumed themselves upon their labors. 'But we,' says he, ' showed these things in our deeds. We will not imitate those men therefore, but will say such things where our deeds bear us witness. And why,' saith he, 'do I say, you?' "for I have hope that as your faith groweth;" for he doth not assert absolutely, preserving his own character, but, 'I hope,' he says, ' if you make progress, that our province will be extended even farther, "to preach the Gospel in the regions beyond." For we shall advance farther yet,' he says, 'so as to preach and labor, not so as to boast in words of what other men have labored.' And well did he call it "province and measure," as though he had come into possession of the world, and a rich inheritance; and showing that the whole was wholly God's. 'Having then such works,' he says, 'and expecting greater, we do not boast as they do who have nothing, nor do we ascribe any part to ourselves, but the whole to God. Wherefore also he adds,

Ver. 17. "But he that glorieth, let him glory in the Lord."

This also, he saith, accrueth to us from God.

Ver. 18. "For not he that commendeth himself is approved, but whom the Lord commendeth."

He did not say, we are so, "but whom the Lord commendeth. Seest thou how modestly he speaks? But if as he proceeds he stirreth up loftier words, wonder not, for this also cometh of Paul's prudence. For if he had gone on in every part to speak lowly words, he would not have hit these men so effectually, nor have extricated the disciples from their error. For it is possible both by modesty ill-timed to do harm, and by saying something admirable of one's self at a proper time to do good. As therefore he also did. For there was no little danger in the disciples being persuaded into any mean opinion of Paul. Not that Paul sought the glory that cometh of men. For had he sought this, he would not have kept silence so long on those great and marvellous matters of "fourteen years ago;" (Chap. xii. 20) nor would he, when necessity was laid upon him, have so shrunk back and hesitated to speak of them; very evidently he would not even then have spoken, had he not been compelled. Certainly then it was not from a desire after the glory which cometh from men that he said these things, but out of tender care for the disciples. For since they cast reproaches at him as a braggart, and as boastful in words but able to show nothing in deeds, he is compelled subsequently to come to those revelations. Although he had it in his power to convince them by his deeds, at the time when he said these things: yet he still persists, nevertheless, in using menaces in words. For he was most especially free from vain-glory; and this his whole life proves, both before and after this. For instance, it was because of this that he changed all at once; and having changed, confounded the Jews and cast away all that honor he had from them, although he was himself their head and their champion. But he considered none of those things when he had found the truth; but took instead their insults and contumely; for he looked to the salvation of the many, thinking this everything. For he that thinketh nothing of hell nor of heaven nor of ten thousand worlds in regard of his longing after Christ, how should he hunt after the glory which cometh from the many? By no means; but he is even very lowly when he may be so, and brands his former life with infamy when he calls himself, "a blasphemer, and a persecutor, and injurious." (1 Tim. i. 13.) And his disciple Luke too says many things of him, evidently having learnt them from himself, himself displaying fully his former life no less than that after his conversion.